The Crisis of German Philosophy

Wolfram Eilenberger’s Time of the Magicians is an worldwide bestseller, translated into over twenty languages. This really is a remarkable accomplishment for a book discussing the lives of four German-language philosophers from the decade 1919-1929. It is all the more noteworthy in that although two of those thinkers are well known –Heidegger and Wittgenstein–another two are hardly household names, including Ernst Cassirer and Walter Benjamin.
The book has a coming-of-age plot and the setting is the doomed Weimar Republic. Eilenberger traces how the philosophers fared from the conclusion of World War I to the emergence of National Socialism, dipping in their love lives, book travails, and ambitions for academic rank. The four identifying thinkers were not buddies and they seldom (if ever) met. Two of those four, Cassirer and Benjamin were Jews, although Heidegger and Wittgenstein were brought up in Catholic households.
Time of the Magicians barrels along and every couple of pages the focus switches from one tribe to a different. This method permits vignettes of every theorist from each year of the decade. It cunningly permits the philosophers to”meet,” even though only Cassirer and Heidegger ever did so. The  book begins and ends with a collecting of the philosophical glitterati of the age. The meeting occurred at Davos in 1929. The name of the book is really a play in The Magic Mountain, an ideas-driven novel by the German author Thomas Mann, which he set in Davos ahead of the Great War. The highlight of Davos was a disagreement involving the excellent establishment figure of German philosophy, Cassirer, and the youthful, intellectual force of character, Heidegger. Eilenberger presents the back-and-forth of the debate as like the rounds of a boxing game. 
Like lots of highly touted sports events, in which the sport is a bit of a dud in the end, the big intellectual match-up passed inconclusively, depending on either side. Cassirer was a man of learning and intellectual sophistication and maintained his own ably against the young pretender. It did not really matter, for the power of the space was all with Heidegger. The debate at Davos marked the passing of the Old Guard. Though the power Heidegger was channeling wrought iron ruin Germany, and the Earth, his brand of existential phenomenology nevertheless shapes European philosophy. Today, almost no one research Cassirer or his neo-Kantianism, the establishment thinking of the Weimar Republic.
Commanding Genius
Crisis in the offing, you might expect philosophers to be more thinking about law and politics, but mostly our four theorists were concerned with terminology. There’s no more mythical figure in contemporary philosophy compared to Ludwig Wittgenstein. Wittgenstein’s 1921 Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus was penned in the trenches. He combined the Austro-Hungarian army in 1914 and was decorated many occasions for conspicuous bravery. Born into one of Europe’s richest households, he even also gave his inheritance worth countless millions in today’s dollars to his allies, also tried his hand in many vocations: soldier, soldier, architect, primary school teacher, monk, however, in a deeply troubled life, it was philosophy that took.
Though he was and primarily composed in German, Wittgenstein set the trajectory of Anglo-American philosophy for most of the twentieth century.” Wittgenstein left to the war without having completed his undergraduate studies. He requested Lords Bertrand Russell and John Maynard Keynes to put the Tractatus forward to the university as proof that he qualified for an undergraduate degree. Neither claimed to know the book but in addition they had no doubt it had been a work of genius. Maybe a comfort to those who have tried to publish, the Tractatus has been refused by countless presses and it took all of Russell’s prestige to get the book in print. Its book was a sensation across Europe.
The Tractatus probes the bounds of intelligible speech and in doing so points to a quiet at which Wittgenstein was convinced, righteousness and salvation resided. Keynes reports himself which Wittgenstein scolded him because of his lack of reverence. Back in Cambridge, he had been nick-named GOD and at Vienna an unlikely reading team had been besotted with his own thinking. This reading group, called the Vienna Circle, gathered the very hard-nosed and scorched-earth rationalists attainable across the glorious Moritz Schlick and Rudolf Carnap. Advocates of logical positivism–a hyper reductive philosophy arguing that the sole meaningful propositions are people able to be confirmed and measured–they found Wittgenstein’s spartan writing electrifying and moved over his compressed sentences over and over. The Vienna Circle sought out Wittgenstein to describe his thinking.
Wittgenstein seems to have considered the novel as therapy for the malaise gripping the West–he had been, in fact, taken with all the”talking cure” of psychoanalysis–also found the Vienna Circle’s strategy to the Tractatus exasperating. Part of the issue was that in the years after the Great War, Wittgenstein’s thinking had proceeded, radically. His second classic work would be published posthumously, and it provided something completely different. This was the stripped-down, Bauhaus-style of composing: speech, he contended, is best approached as play and a game. “Large components,” of the Philosophical Investigations (1953), summarizes Eilenberger,”include an infinite game of question-and-answer involving a philosopher and an fanciful, inner kid”
An Outsider’s Plight
Aside from Cassirer, a elderly man who could not serve in the war due to a skin condition, Time of the Magicians is about young men coming-of-age at the shadow of a cataclysmic war. The saddest of the stories is Benjamin’s. His fame began to grow only towards the conclusion of their’20s, so he largely figures in the story for a man refused by lovers and spurned from the academy. But, his brand of postliberalism is currently very much in style and also the 2020s are likely to be more kinder to him than the 1920s. He committed suicide in 1940, believing the Nazis were about to catch him.
Benjamin had been an outsider as it had been clear to all that he had been a draft dodger. In an age of universal sacrifice, people who hadn’t functioned were looked down and the doorways of the universities remained resolutely closed . He had been made to pick up paper work as a literary writer and translator. He kept writing all the time, but his purposeful bits were rejected by publishers as incomprehensible. There’s currently a cult around these writings.
As the decade moved on, Benjamin struck upon a magazine-style of composing and towards the conclusion of their’20s his efforts began to repay, in fame and money. By 1929he was highly esteemed and penning his hefty Arcades Project. Finally, a critical assessment of consumer capitalism, the novel is really a meditation about the shopping arcades of Paris. He seen the iron, glassand mirrors encasing and representing the goods for sale a screen of falsehood. This theme of industrial vanity intentionally clashed with his earliest work on speech for a display of objective reality, God’s reality, in reality.
If, now, Wittgenstein has ceded ground to David Hume as the engine of Anglo-American philosophy, also Heidegger’s heritage is firmly within French philosophical hands, Time of the Magicians reminds us of the range and level of the German intellectual tradition lost in World War II.Benjamin is not easy to categorize, however. When he committed suicide, he had been travelling with barely any possessions–unsurprisingly–but inside his luggage was a manuscript about the philosophy of history which reads to some as a evisceration of Marxism. When Adorno published the collected correspondence of Benjamin, he decided to omit a correspondence composed in 1930 to Carl Schmitt. There, Benjamin thanks Schmitt because of his conspicuous influence upon his thinking. Schmitt has been dubbed by many the Crown Jurist of the Third Reich. A connecting ribbon is that their shared postliberalism, also of those four philosophers starring in Time of the Magicians, Benjamin probably offers the sternest test of classical liberalism. 

Eilenberger doesn’t like Heidegger. He relays Hannah Arendt’s quip that Heidegger did not have a poor character, simply none whatsoever. Eilenberger argues that Heidegger used people to get a”sacred ending,” the ideal material conditions for the growth of his thinking. He traces which Heidegger wrangled a cushy assignment away from the trenches and in a reprehensible manner: manning a meteorological device to the time of gas attacks. He’s completely honest, but in describing Being and Time, published in 1927, as a rocket, also the item of”one of the great bursts of creativity in the history of philosophy.”
He notes that Heidegger introduced brand new language into philosophy: Dasein, environment, being-in-the-world, each-one-ness, concern, gear. Rejecting the stock language of person, self, person, or subject, Heidegger coined Dasein (being there) to convey an awareness of human experience in which consciousness and items don’t relate as much as emerge together from an ever-elusive introduction of reality. Language itself is birthed within this opening. Language cannot provide insight into God, as Benjamin believed, therefore, because speech is utterly historic and special to the real world experience of Dasein. 
This can be hotly contested, however. The conservative theorist Alexsandr Dugin requires Dasein to be an ethnos, men enveloped by reality launching for a civilization. It is the latter interpretation which best explains language and the way that Heidegger ends up cautioning students:”Let not theoretical principles and’thoughts’ be the principles of your Being.
The Fact of Myth
Cassirer contrasts markedly with others. A learned man, he had been quite at peace, and professionally. At the moment, establishment philosophy in Germany was devoted to Germany’s highest philosopher, Immanuel Kant. Cassirer’s neo-Kantianism was hitched to the positivism of Comte. With Kant, Cassirer celebrates persons”as inventive shapers of their own access to the world” and, like Comte, embraced a progressive philosophy .
Sponsored by the Warburg Library–that the most enormous, diverse, personal collection of one of Europe’s wealthiest men, Abraham Warburg–Cassirer contended that truths, together with their rituals and taboos, are the first symbolic strains, but the brain accomplishes”its authentic and complete inwardness,” its liberty and dignity, by abstracting greater, scientific forms, forming regulations of scientific rationality. Language itself is a matter of the abstraction:”terminology not denotes simply items, things as such, but always conceptions arising out of the autonomous action of the brain”
Invited to deliver a public address on the value of the Weimar Constitution on its own tenth anniversary, Cassirer invoked the humanism of Leibniz, Kant, and Goethe. How nice it would have been when the mild world of Cassirer had endured. For all his intellect, in Eilenberger’s telling, it had been his wifeToni, who saw clearly that her husband’s time in Germany was over. In a review of Cassirer’s job, Eric Voegelin admits the erudition, but can also be blunt that Cassirer’s optimism in the development of inwardness blinded many to the potency of myth inside the contemporary mind. 
Time of the Magicians is intellectual background composed with a gentle hands. It includes photographs which provide a fantastic feeling of their characters and occasions. The book’s principle of choice is somewhat enigmatic. Profiles of Schmitt, Strauss, Arendt, and Voegelin–all came of age in the same German decade and remain influential–might better convey thinking in a period of crisis. If, now, Wittgenstein has ceded ground to David Hume as the engine of Anglo-American philosophy, also Heidegger’s heritage is firmly within French philosophical hands, Time of the Magicians reminds us of the range and level of the German intellectual tradition lost in World War II.